An Audio Family Album

For two decades, Bouchra Khalili’s work has articulated contemporary migratory trajectories, colonial continuum, and the politics of memory of internationalist struggles and collective emancipation. Through this she investigates new forms of belonging that are freed from the models of citizenship imposed by the nation-state model as it was built in the West. For this project conceived for The Diasporic Schools, Bouchra Khalili starts from the legacy of Al Assifa, a theatre group active between 1972 and 1978 that consisted of a group of North African workers – all born colonised – and their French student allies, and whose shows were mainly performed in striking factories and community spaces. Al Assifa also published a newspaper, Al Assifa: The Voice of Arab Workers. Al Assifa were the subjects of Khalili’s The Tempest Society, a video installation (documenta 14, 2017) and publication (Bookworks, London, 2019)., featuring articles and news about anti-colonial and immigration struggles. In those years, members of the group used to read the newspaper in Arab cafes in Paris to allow illiterate members of the community to access the information as well; audio cassettes were also used to circulate this content among Maghreb-descendent communities in several French cities, reaffirming oral narration as a powerful practice of resistance to the official discourse and to dominant knowledge.  In An Audio Family Album, Bouchra Khalili continues her investigation of Al Assifa’s methodology based on the dying tradition of Al-halqa, the oldest performing art in North Africa. Collaborating with a younger generation of members of the same communities living nowadays in Europe, she proposes an online archive of voices, bringing together stories of emancipation that have helped shape the memories and contemporary strategies of diaspora struggles and that, through this process, are passed on from one generation to the next. Across geographies and generations, these stories form a collective family album where, as in the Al-halqa tradition, the voices embody the living and nomadic memory of people’s struggles for collective emancipation.

The contributions come in various languages: French, Flemish, English and Tamazight. They have not all been translated. They reflect the linguistic diversity of diasporic cultures and heritages. The language of the title indicates the main language of the performance. Some of the performances also include bi-lingual material.

Abdellali Hajjat

Abbas et le Sociologue Abdellali Hajjat is a Brussels-based sociologist and political scientist, the son of a Moroccan migrant worker living in France. In this examination of an interview between Abdelmalek Sayad – who was central to the introduction of the study of migration in French sociology – and Abbas, an Algerian immigrant, Abdellali meditates on exile and conflicted feelings generated by the lives in transit of first-generation immigrants. Finally, after reading this interview, Abdellali invites us to reflect on the silenced and untold stories of his father’s generation.

Maja Ajmia Yde Zellama

Histoire de Hamoudi Maja is a filmmaker and an activist who was born in Brussels. The daughter of a Tunisian father and a Danish mother, Maja grew up among men of Arab and Muslim descent: her brothers, cousins and uncles. As an attentive observer, she shares her views on masculinities in diaspora – as constructed by society – and as imposed on the men in her family. Here, Maja’s story is interwoven with Faiza Guene’s descriptions of Hamoudi, a secondary character from her novel Kiffe Kiffe Demain.

Joachim Ben Yakoub

Ceux de l’Exil Joachim is a writer and researcher based in Brussels. The son of a Tunisian father and a Belgian mother, Joachim shares his investigation of the first generation of North African activism in Belgium. In his contribution, he explores the work and legacy of Ahl El Hijra – a music band of North African immigrants in Brussels that was active in the mid-70s to early 80s. Ahl El Hijra’s work was committed to North African communities, using music to bear witness to the living conditions of migrant communities in Belgium. Ahl El Hijra mirrors the work of Al Assifa, which provided inspiration to Bouchra Khalili for The Tempest Society (digital film, 2017; publication, 2019) and her contribution to The Diasporic Schools. Like Ahl El Hijra, Al Assifa (1972-1978) united a group of North African factory workers in Paris who used theatre, music, street performance and audio recordings to organise migrant communities in France and raise awareness of migrants’ living conditions.

Mohamed Mimoun

Kecskemét-Oran Mohamed is an activist who was born and is based in Brussels. Raised in an Algerian working-class family, his activism focuses on anticolonial strategies and awareness-raising campaigns on police brutality. Mohamed narrates the stories of two soldiers – Joseph Otto Klems and Joseph Dobos – who deserted from the French Foreign Legion and joined anticolonial movements of liberation in North Africa.

Ikram Ettarrahi

Notes on Oral Feminist Storytelling Ikram is a visual artist exploring the legacy of oral storytelling from the Rif region of northern Morocco. Starting from the work of Fatima Sadiqi – a Moroccan feminist scholar – Ikram meditates on the many anonymous women who “orally” wrote and perpetuated the memory of anticolonial struggles. Among the most famous epic poems on anticolonial history, and the Rif War in particular, is Dhar Ubharran. Ikram concludes with a performance of fragments of the poem in its original language of Tarifit.

Radouan Mriziga

Notes for an Introduction to an Amazigh Epistemology Radouan is a Moroccan-born, Brussels-based choreographer. Tafukt (2020) is a dance solo and the first part of a trilogy focused on epistemologies and mythologies of the Tamazigh – the indigenous population of North Africa. For his contribution to An Audio Family Album, Radouan interrogates new forms of Amazigh epistemology and its potential for diasporic communities.

Fatima-Zohra Ait El Maâti :

Allo, mon père
First-generation immigration was often undertaken by men on their own, leaving their wives and children behind in their home countries. It could take years before these families reunited. Fatima-Zohra is a filmmaker born and raised in Brussels in a Moroccan family. She recalls a story often told by her own mother: Fatima-Zohra’s mother not recognising her own father when he returned from Belgium for the first time. Taking that family story as her departure point, Fatima-Zohra meditates on migration, separation and loneliness.

Bouchra Khalili will talk about An Audio Family Album on the 31.10 in the frame of the Public programme.

Visit the website of An Audio Family Album:

Presentation: Kunstenfestivaldesarts-Bouchra Khalili

A project by: Bouchra Khalili

A project initiated and coproduced by Kunstenfestivaldesarts in the frame of The Diasporic Schools

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An Audio Family Album On the figuration of the civic poet as hlayqi·a

By Joachim Ben Yakoub

Bouchra Khalili’s proposition for The Diasporic Schools at the Kunstenfestivaldesarts 2020 begins with a series of individual encounters with members of a new generation of Maghrebi artists and activists in Brussels, later to be complemented with moments of contact in other European cities. Out of the relations shaping these meetings and conversations, she is forming a living online family album of voices, re-establishing stories of resistance and repairing memories of rebellion. In her search for the meaning of voices produced by the persistence of history resonating and echoing in the present, to paraphrase Khalili, she decided to close her eyes and listen to the murmurs circulating and resonating in the diasporic al-halqa of Brussels. To convey these family stories to her audience, Khalili returns to the collaborative methods of her previous work, reconsidering the figuration of the civic poet as hlayqi·a. 

The title of her 2017 video installation, The Tempest Society, is not a reference to Shakespeare’s last seminal play or to Aimé Césaire’s critical adaptation, but rather to the legacy of Al Assifa, a self-organised autonomous theatre company created in 1973 by Maghrebi workers, partisans of the Arab Workers’ Movement in Paris. Both the journal of the movement and the theatre company were named after the armed revolutionary wing of Fatah, Yasser Arafat’s Palestinian National Liberation Movement, highlighting the workers’ allegiance to their origins in the French Palestine Committees since 1967. The group engaged in new forms of improvised action theatre and agitprop, playing during factory strikes and in community spaces and occupied public squares. Simultaneously, they were active in a variety of demonstrations against rampant racism and police violence, and in defence of dignified working conditions, continuously acting in a spirit of internationalist solidarity. In the constructed narrative of The Tempest Society, stories of anti-colonial struggle and internationalism intertwine with tales of civic becoming.  

For An Audio Family Album Khalili re-established a precise link, not so much with the heritage of Al Assifa at large, but with the various ways in which Al Assifa created the conditions for stories and information to circulate in the diaspora. In response to low literacy levels among Arab workers in Paris at the time, some of the members of Al Assifa chose to read aloud the most important news items from the daily newspaper in cafés where workers congregated. The group also set up Radio Assifa and distributed cassette recordings of their chronicles to keep the community up to date on the state of affairs of different social and political conflicts and mobilisations. Most importantly, Al Assifa revived the endangered form of al-halqa, once a widespread and subversive performing art in the Maghreb, in order to reflect on the ambiguity of the power relations shaping current events around them, in particular the racist murder of the young Djellali Ben Ali or the murder of Mohamed Diab at the hands of the police. In al-halqa – to paraphrase Phillipe Tancelin, one of Al Assifa’s founder members – the storyteller does not have the authority of the author; as the conveyor of a collective and historical discourse, he or she is subjected to real and equal questioning by the public and can thus be challenged by the audience at any moment during any public performance. 

The re-emergence of al-halqa as a circular performative form in the diasporic context of the Arab workers’ movements in Paris in the 1970s is intricately linked to the various ways in which the anti-colonial struggle seeped through the Maghrebi theatre landscape, in which discussions arose about different strategies to decolonise the dramatic repertoire and its canon. The return of both the device of the storyteller (hlayqi/hlayqia) and the circular arrangement of the performance made space for hybrid theatrical forms traversed by fantastic, mythical and historical tales, with characters and figures anchored in the translocal histories of the Maghreb, and theatrical modalities borrowed from Amazigh and Islamic traditions, as well as Brechtian aesthetics and documentary theatre. This hybridisation strongly influenced the work of a new movement of theatre makers, represented by figures such as Kateb Yacine, Abdelkader Alloula and Tayeb Saddiki, each of whom, in their own way, combined different performative approaches with popular forms, wielding experimental and politically engaged poetics with a certain sense of ceremoniality. The circulation of vital energy inside al-halqa rendered theatre a sensitive experience again, repairing life and its reverse in its most vulnerable form in the fleeting process of world-making. Theatre regained its function as a distant, interactive but always critical mirror, questioning and subverting what can be said or heard and what should remain silenced, reconsidering what is visible and what is indiscernible, and reinstating the oral narrative as a powerful from of resistance to hegemonic discourse and ways of knowing and sensing the world.

In An Audio Family Album, Bouchra Khalili relates to the endangered circular form of al-halqa central to Al Assifa’s practice to rearticulate the uncanny intricacies of diasporic family stories. In doing so, she taps into the contemporary need to tell forgotten stories of resistance and liberation, but also to generate new oral forms, and through these forms reinvent new tales and myths. Together they have the potential to constitute what Stuart Hall calls a living archive or, in this case, a living family album. Through their performed orality, the family stories told in al-halqa remain in a permanent state of suspension. Like diaspora itself, the animated form of al-halqa is inherently unstable, nomadic and always moving in different directions, so the family stories told and the relations formed never fully crystallise, surpassing the scriptocentric limits of the written world. By doing so Khalili holds space for the possible resurgence or re-emergence of silenced and erased memories, to re-world the divided world we inhabit today. 

In The Tempest Society Khalili invited three different Athenian students to summon the presence of the Al Assifa group through their own first-hand diasporic experiences of racism and xenophobia, alternated with readings of Al Assifa’s manifesto Les Tiers-Idées (1997) and selected excerpts of the novel My Name is Europe by Gazmend Kapllani. In her proposal for The Diasporic Schools, however, Khalili invites a new generation of Maghrebi artists and activists to read exhumed family stories of liberation that have influenced their past and retain the potential to inspire current forms of diasporic resistance, all the while becoming part of a newly constituted family album. Inspired by the legacy of Pier Paolo Pasolini, Khalili calls on these artists and activists to embody the figuration of the civil poet as hlayqi·a, oscillating through free indirect speech in an intertextual play between historical citations and personal narratives, speaking through concerned and involved individuals to re-assemble and render audible a conversant collective voice. Not giving voice to, but speaking nearby those who are absent or silenced in order to bear witness to the various ways historical injustices can be continuously resisted. Going beyond the representational restriction of time and space in the fabulation of a family album, a people to come is invented that prefigures a world to come, where the diasporic would a priori be inscribed in every school, remembering the ancestral lineage of resistance that made a free and dignified life possible.

Text written by Joachim Ben Yakoub in October 2020, in the frame of The Diasporic Schools of the Kunstenfestivaldesarts

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Bouchra Khalili is a Moroccan-born (1975, Casablanca) and Berlin-based artist. She studied Film History at Sorbonne Nouvelle and Visual Arts at the École Nationale Supérieure d'Arts de Paris. Encompassing film, video, installation, photography, printmaking, and publishing, Khalili's practice explores imperial and colonial continuums as epitomized by contemporary forced illegal migrations and the politics of memory of anti-colonial struggles and international solidarity. At the intersection of history and micro-narratives, her work combines documentary strategies and conceptual practice to investigate questions of self-representation, autonomous agency, and forms of resistance of suppressed communities. Deeply informed by the legacy of post-independence avant-gardes and the vernacular traditions of her native Morocco, Khalili's approach combine performative strategies of storytelling and the old tradition of Northern Africa storytelling to develops civic platforms for first person accounts eventually forming collective stories of resistance and emancipation. Khalili's work has been subject to numerous solo exhibitions, such as at Museum of Fine Arts (Boston), Museum Folkwang (Essen), Jeu de Paume (Paris), MAXXI Museum (Roma), Museum of Modern Art (New York). She also participated to several international exhibitions such as at the 12th Bamako Biennial, BienalSur (Buenos Aires), Documenta 14th Kassel, 55th Venice Biennale, among others. As a cultural activist, she’s a co-founder of the Cinémathèque de Tanger, Northern Morocco's first cultural center dedicated to the preservation and promotion of film culture in the region.

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